Pig farming is one of the most profitable livestock businesses. Pork constitutes most of what many consumers worldwide consider their best meat. Profitability also stems from the reproduction rate of pigs. On average, a sow (female pig) weans off at least 9 healthy piglets per birth. That translates to at least 18 piglets annually since a sow gives birth twice per year. This makes it possible to start a small pig farming business and grow quickly over time. To build a profitable and sustainable pig farming business, you require sufficient knowledge of how to efficiently raise the pigs, good business management skills, and a good piggery business plan. This article will outline how to start the piggery farming business, and the pig farming business plan – PDF, Word and Excel.
Piggery farming is a lucrative business providing income for many entrepreneurs all over the world. As with any other business there are some important steps you need to take before you start. First determine the size of your piggery farming project. This includes the number of pigs (boars & sows) that you intend to start with; location of the pig farm, land, housing, equipment as well as your target market. All of these factors will be affected by the amount of investment capital that you have. You also need to carry out market research (Who are you going to sell the pigs/pork to? At what price?) and write a piggery business plan before you venture into the pig farming business.
You can sell weaners. Weaners are bought either to be fed normally till maturity or for pig fattening. They are typically known as feeder pigs. Next up are porkers. Porkers are reared exclusively for pork meat production. They are sold when they reach 60-80 kilograms or on average 5-6 months of age. Then you have baconers which are larger than porkers. They reach their maturity at roughly 100 kilograms. Age-wise that is at around 6-8 months.
You can also sell your pigs as general purpose pigs. This you can do as live pigs or as slaughtered pigs. As slaughtered pigs you can sell them as whole carcasses, halved, or as portions. The other option is to sell pigs for purposes of manufacturing wide-ranging end products. Pork can be processed into sausages and emulsions, for example. There are also by-products from pigs that are essential to the manufacturing of things like adhesives, soaps, fertilizers, and more. Yet another lucrative option is to sell breeding stock. You can sell the pigs’ droppings for use as manure in crop production. The same can be used produce biogas.
Selecting Land for Piggery Farming Business
To start your pig farming business, you require a large enough area for erecting the necessary pig housing and other farm buildings. When selecting the land for your piggery farm, consider the conditions of the roads – vehicles will use the roads to deliver pig feed to the piggery farm as well as deliver pigs to the market from the farm. Thus you will need to choose a location with good roads for your piggery farming business. Also consider if the land will allow you to expand your pig farming business in the future, eg is there enough space to construct additional pig sty houses? Choice of land should also take into consideration water flooding. It is detrimental for water flooding to occur where the pigs will be housed. That is why it is important to choose land that has a gentle slope. This will enable runoff thus avoiding any possibility of water flooding. You should locate your piggery farm at least 1 kilometre away from the rivers to avoid possible contamination of water from effluence. Pigs require plenty of water, thus your pig farm should be located where there is clean and reliable water supply. Your pig farming business plan should take into account the cost of purchasing or leasing the land.
Good piggery housing will make it easier to manage pigs and also reduces the mortality rate of the piglets. With the right type of pig housing, you can successfully rear 95% or more of all the live born piglets to market weight in the shortest possible time. It is advised that the piggery housing should typically be long and narrow. Its orientation should follow an east to west direction. The floor of the piggery house must be dry. The piggery housing floor can be made from cement, bricks, poles, stone slates, or wooden slates. Piggery house design must also factor in the need for sufficient shade and ventilation. Strike a healthy balance by ensuring ventilation does not cause harmful loss or gain of heat to the pigs. Pigs at different stages of growth require different environments (temperatures) and different housings. Piglets require protection from very low temperatures to ensure that they grow to their maximum potential level. On the other hand, the growing and reproducing pigs must be protected against high temperatures. So you have to ensure that the piggery houses are built to protect the young and grown pigs against extreme temperature and bad weather conditions such as continuous rains and cold winds.
Piggery housings are usually demarcated into 4 separate sections. This is to cater for the 4 main stages of the pig production cycle – thus pigs at different growth stages require different housing, you can’t just house all pigs in one piggery house. These 4 stages are pregnancy, lactation, weaning, and breeding. Allow between 6 and 8 meters per pig boar (male pig) when breeding. Allow 4 to 6 meters per sow when lactating. During pregnancy, allow 1.5 meters to 2 meters per sow. During the weaning stage, allow 0.3 to 0.5 meters per piglet. These specifications will guide you in figuring out the size of your piggery housing. Materials and equipment required for the construction of pig housing structures and buildings can be bought from hardwares and other construction suppliers. Costs of constructing the pig housing should be included in the piggery business plan.
Equipment For Pig Farming Business
There are a number of activities involved in pig farming which all require specialized equipment.
- Personal Protective Clothing And Basic Handling : Rearing pigs can be messy so you will need protective clothing such as work-suits, overalls, gloves, face masks, boots, and the like. If you have a high number of pigs, a feral snare would come in handy. It helps you single out a pig when you need to separate it from the rest.
- Feeding And Drinking Equipment : You require pig feeding and drinking equipment and systems. There is an option to use manual approaches or automated ones.
- Breeding Equipment : If you are into pig breeding you must have a farrowing and a mating crate. The farrowing crate is instrumental during the lactation stage. It guards against incidents of sows accidentally killing piglets due to their heavy weights. The mating crate is to ensure sows are not hurt in any way during mating. A weighing crate is also generally needed in pig farming.
- Veterinary Equipment : There are other operations that require specialized veterinary equipment. Examples of such equipment are scalpels, blades, needles, syringes, and dressings. This mostly depends on the procedures you personally do in your pig farming. Some prefer to outsource so they might not need much or anything at all.
The pig farm business plan should include the costs of acquiring the required equipment.
Pig Breeding Options
Live Pigs : This is the easiest and most common breeding approach for many pig farmers. It can entail sourcing and introducing boars (male pigs) and sows (breeding female pigs) into your herd. Another option is to source and introduce weaners. These are young pigs that will not have yet reached full maturity. Third option is to source and introduce breeding stock chosen using segregated early weaning (SEW). This involves taking piglets from the farrowing crate at an early age and then rearing them in a different building on the farm.
Surgical Methods : The other 3 ways are surgical methods namely, hysterectomy, embryo transplant, and artificial insemination. Of these 3, artificial insemination is relatively less sophisticated and more common.
Breeding Pigs: Sows and Bows
To start your pig farming business, you require breeding stock which consists of bows (males pigs) and sows (female pigs). Boars and sows will mate and the sows will give birth to piglets. The important thing is to closely check where and how you get your breeding stock. When looking to source breeding stock you must check the history – especially regarding diseases and health status. Your supplier must be able to provide relevant documents detailing those aspects. They should also be able to direct you to veterinarians who can corroborate their documents. It should be possible to be shown reports from veterinarians on diseases and health status of the pigs. Your breeding stock supplier must also avail pig breeding records. The absence of any of such raises red flags. The growth potential of your piglets will depend on the nature and quality of the parent stock. Thus it is of great importance to buy a good pig breeding stock from reliable piggery farmers. Poor selection of breeding stock will lead to financial loss for your pig farming business plan.
You require 1 boar for every 15-20 sows. The number of soars which you buy for your pig farming business will depend on the scale of your piggery business. One sow gives birth to 9-11 piglets from one pregnancy. A sow can fall pregnant twice a year. The pregnancy of a pig lasts for 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days (114 days). The pig farming business plan should take into consideration the cost of purchasing the breeding stock.
Pig Feed And Nutrition
The pigs must be given the correct type of feed as well as the correct amount of feed. This will ensure that the pigs reproduce efficiently, grow efficiently, utilize the feed efficiently, produce good quality pork, thus maximizing the profits of your pig farming business. If you fail to give the proper feed to pigs then you may miss the slaughter weight targets and the desired quality of the pork. This may lead to financial loss of your pig farming business. Pigs require different types and amount of feed depending on which stage of growth they are at. This implies that piglets have their own feed type, bows & sows have their own type of feed, while lactating pigs also have their own type of feed.
Pig feeds constitute the greatest component of the total production costs. That is why some pig farmers use other cheaper feeds to minimize commercial feeds. Pigs require feeds with adequate proportions of proteins, energy, vitamins, and minerals. That is why commercial stock feeds are better because they are expertly proportioned. Regardless, you can use other non-commercial stock feeds as supplementary feeds. You just need to know that pigs mainly eat grains, fruits, and vegetables. Another common feed is residue from alcohol distilling processes. Just as long grain, particularly millet is involved in the distilling process. Bear in mind that such residues are not suitable for feeding pregnant or lactating pigs. Same applies to weaners or piglets in general. Pigs should not be fed with meats, dead animals, random waste, and fish. Your pig farming business plan should take into account all the feed costs at different stage of growth of the pigs.
Capital for a Piggery Farming Business
Starting a pig farming business is capital intensive. The capital is required for constructing the pig housings, purchasing the breeding stock, purchasing stock feeds and other costs associated with running a pig farming business. The amount of capital you need for your pig farming business will depend on the size of your piggery farming project. Your piggery business plan should clearly outline the money required to start and operate a pig production business.
Management And Labour for a Pig Farm
The number of employees you require for your pig farming business will depend on the size of your piggery project. You will need pig keepers who will be responsible for feeding the pigs, cleaning and disinfecting the pig housings, washing the pigs and other duties. There may also be need for finance and marketing team, depending on the size of your pig production business. Your pig farming project proposal should take into account the salary costs for all the people you are going to employ.
Knowing your customer segments can be informed by how pigs are often sold. Pigs can be sold as market pigs, young piglets, feeder pigs, breeding stock, slaughtered (whole or halve), and cuts. Besides feeder pigs and breeding stock, weight is a core determinant of price. Understanding these dynamics helps inform your value proposition. That way, your marketing will be clear and specific about what you offer. Your target markets are several and as such you should diversify your messaging to appeal specifically. One common target market is direct customers in need of pork. These can be individuals and entities (e.g. restaurants).
You also have wholesalers and retailers looking to resell e.g. supermarkets and butcheries. There is also another segment comprising of processors. Pork can be processed into a number of value-added products. Such clients often have a number of strict stipulations your pigs or pork must adhere to. Capitalize on farmers’ marketplaces (onsite or virtual). Tap into other public platforms to market your pigs such as livestock auctions. Cold email potential bulk clients such as wholesalers, retailers, and processors offering to regularly supply. Overall, put up a detailed and ever active online presence via a business website and social media accounts.
You can slaughter your pigs when they are between the ages of 4 months to 6 months. The exact age at which you slaughter your pigs depends on whether you want to sell your pigs as porkers or as baconers.
The market for pork is very huge and is ever increasing. The annual global demand of pork is 110 million metric tons. That’s a lot! You can supply pork to abattoirs, local butcher shops, retailers, hotels, supermarkets, restaurants, wholesalers and individual consumers. Pork has to be sold whilst it’s still fresh, thus you should locate your pig farm close to your market. The pig production business plan ought to include a proper marketing plan to use in your piggery business.
The export market for pork is also very huge! As you grow your pig farming business you will be able to export the pork to other countries. The largest importers of pork are Japan, Russia, Hong Kong, China, South Korea and Mexico.
Pre-Written Pig Farming Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel): Comprehensive Version, Short Funding/Bank Loan Version and Automated Financial Statements
For an in-depth analysis of the pig farming business, we encourage you to purchase our well-researched and comprehensive piggery business plan. We introduced the business plans after discovering that many were venturing into the pig production business without enough knowledge and understanding of how to run the piggery business, how to keep the pigs, lack of understanding of the financial side of the business, lack of understanding of : the industry, the risks involved , costs and profitability of the business; which often leads to disastrous losses.
The StartupBiz Global pig farming business plan will make it easier for you to launch and run your piggery business successfully, fully knowing what you are going into, and what’s needed to succeed in the business. It will be easier to plan and budget as you will be aware of all the costs involved in setting up and running the pig farming business.
Uses of the Pig Production Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)
The pig farming business plan can be used for many purposes including:
- Raising capital from investors/friends/relatives
- Applying for a bank loan
- Start-up guide to launch your pig production business
- As a piggery business proposal / pig farming project proposal
- Assessing profitability of the piggery business
- Finding a business partner
- Assessing the initial start-up costs so that you know how much to save
- Manual for current business owners to help in business and strategy formulation
Contents of the Piggery Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)
The pig farming business plan include, but not limited to:
- Marketing Strategy
- Financial Statements (monthly cash flow projections, income statements, cash flow statements, balance sheets, break even analysis, payback period analysis, start-up costs, financial graphs, revenue and expenses, Bank Loan Amortization)
- Risk Analysis
- Industry Analysis
- Market Analysis
- SWOT & PEST Analysis
- Operational Requirements (Including technical aspects of how to keep and rear the pigs, feed requirements etc)
- Operational Strategy
- Why some people in pig farming business fail, so that you can avoid their mistakes
- Ways to raise capital to start your pig farming business
The Pre-written piggery farming business plan package consist of 4 files
- Pig Farming Business Plan – PDF file (Comprehensive Version – 81 Pages)
- Pig Farming Business Plan – Editable Word File (Comprehensive Version – 81 Pages)
- Pig Farming Business Plan Funding/Bank Loan Version- Editable Word File (Short version for applying for a loan/funding – 42 pages)
- Pig Farming Business Plan Automated Financial Statements – (Editable Excel File)
The business plan can be used in any country and can be easily edited. The financial statements are automated. This implies that you can change eg the number of pigs, selling price of the pigs etc, and all the other financial statements will automatically adjust to reflect the change.
Click below to download the Contents Page of the Pig Farming Business Plan (PDF)
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Piggery Business Frequently Asked Questions
How many pigs should I start with?
The number of pigs that you should start with depends with the amount of capital that you have, your intended scale of production and the available housing facilities. You need male pigs which are known as boars, as well as female pigs which are known as sows. One male pig can service upto 20 female pigs. You can start with just 5 female pigs for a small piggery business, or 100 female pigs for a large commercial pig farming business.
Is pig farming project profitable?
A pig farming project is a very profitable business venture. Each female pig gives birth to about 10 piglets per birth, and it can give birth twice a year. That means you can get 20 piglets per year from just 1 female pig – which implies a lot of revenue from just 1 pig. However you have to manage the piggery business expenses like feed. This is why it is important for you to get a good pig farming business plan so that you understand the factors which affect the profitability of a pig farming project.
How do I start a small piggery business?
To start a small piggery business, you need the following items: boars, sows, housing, equipment, feed, water, and a ready market. You also require a good piggery business plan before you venture into this business.
What do you feed pigs daily?
Commercial pig stock feeds are the best for feeding your pigs. However to lower the feed expenses, you should also give the pigs supplementary feed like grains and vegetables. It’s important that you manage the feed expenses so that your piggery business becomes profitable. At the same time you should also provide adequate feed to the pigs so that they grow up quickly and attain good weights when slaughtered.
What is the pig farming business model?
The piggery business model involves purchasing male and female pigs which then breed to produce piglets. You then raise and feed the piglets and sell them for a profit after 5-8 months. You do this continuously throughout the year, generating profits along the way.
What is the most profitable pig breed?
The most profitable pig breeds for commercial piggery business include the Large White/Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc, Poland China, Camborough, Spotted and Chester White. The Yorkshire pig breed has good carcass quality and has a good feed conversion ratio, making it one of the most profitable pig breeds.
How many months does a pig take to grow?
If you are providing adequate feed to the pigs, they will take 5-8 months for them to be ready for market. The exact number of months for the pigs to be ready for slaughter will depend on the market needs. Pigs can be sold as porkers or baconers and the categorizations depend on the weight – baconers are larger than porkers.
Is piggery business a good investment?
Piggery business is a good investment as it can generate continuous cash flow for you and can provide good return on investment. However it’s essential that you understand the financial dynamics of piggery business, the costs involved, and the expected profitability. That is why it is important for you to have a good pig production business plan.
We wish you the best in your Pig farming business! Check out our collection of business plans , and more business ideas.