Milk and its products are cardinal parts of many people’s diets. This is what makes dairy farming such a lucrative livestock farming business idea. Dairy farming is a scalable business with projectable financial outlooks. It is a somewhat technical venture which requires specialized knowledge and skills. That is not a big problem though because you can always acquire the relevant knowledge and skills. Dairy farming involves breeding cows, milking them, and selling the milk. To build a profitable, sustainable milk dairy farming business, you require sufficient knowledge of how to efficiently keep the milk cows, good business management skills, and a good dairy farming business plan. This article will outline how to start the dairy farming project, and the dairy farming business plan – PDF, Word and Excel.
Dairy farming is a lucrative business, providing income for many farmers, but there are some essential things you need to do before you venture into the dairy milk production business. You have to decide on the size of your dairy farming project (how many dairy cattle will you keep?); location of the milk dairy farming business, and your target market. These choices will be affected by the amount of capital you have, and the size of your target market. If you do not have a lot of capital, you can always start small and grow your milk dairy farming project overtime. You also need to carry out market research (Who are you going to sell the milk to? At what price?) and write a dairy farming business plan before you start the dairy farm project.
Land for Dairy Cattle Farming Business
A substantial portion of land is need for dairy farming. This is because there are several things that must be accommodated. On average, between 1.5 and 2 acres must be available per cow and calf grazing. You also need a number of dairy farm structures for different purposes. For instance, you need dedicated areas for watering, waste management, equipment storage, milking processes, milk storage, feed storage, and maternity, amongst others. These can be self-contained in separate stalls, barns, or rooms, actual buildings. If there are dairy farm workers and they have to stay onsite, living quarters for them would be needed. Put all that together and factor in the number of cows to have a good idea of the total land size you would need for your dairy farm business.
Another consideration is the general climate of a chosen area. An ideal place would be where the climate promotes the growth of rich pastures. The land should have good water drainage. The soils should have good drainage as well. Those elements are critically important for infrastructural development on the dairy farm. The cattle dairy farm location should not be too close to public spaces e.g. residential areas. It is also important to ascertain that the land in question can be used for dairy farming business. Generally, there are procedures and regulations to be adhered to. Checking with the relevant local authorities is a must. Consider availability of quality and consistent water supply, the size of the land, quality of grass and grazing pasture and the soil type is it affects pasture quality. Other factors include availability of already made infrastructure like good road network, milk facilities, dependable electricity, pens, sheds, buildings. Constructing buildings for a dairy farm is expensive, so it would be an advantage if some buildings are already there.
Housing For Dairy Farm Business
To be successful in the dairy farming business, it’s important that you provide good and adequate housing for the dairy cows. Housing for dairy cows is required for several reasons: protecting the dairy cattle from adverse weather conditions, confining the milk cows when they are not grazing, and to allow easier management and control of the dairy milk herd. The best dairy design depends on the local climatic conditions, budgetary constraints and availability of bedding materials. When designing housing for the dairy milk herd, take into consideration the need to provide adequate space, feed & water facilities, milking facilities, waste management and livestock handling features. There are many different structures which can be used for a dairy milk farm, and these include free-stall, tunnels, composite barns, dry lots, tie-stall facilities and dairy sheds. Other dairy milk cow structures include milking parlour, sick/isolation pens, calving boxes, crowding pens, sorting corrals, working chutes & gates, and squeeze gates. However the necessity of the structures depends on the size of the dairy farming business.
The housing needs for dairy farming business are informed by the different production stages. The dairy milking herd needs to be housed in its own area. They can be housed in stalls or barns which come in different designs. For instance, if you have a small dairy herd you can set up tie stalls. Typically many dairy farmers start off with what are called bedded-pack barns. These are basically enclosed sheds where there is no flooring but just the basic earth. It is usually from this that many, over time, transition or upgrade to more sophisticated dairy farm housing. When it comes to dairy cattle heifers, the hoop barns are the most common housing. Age-wise we are looking at cows between 6 months and heifers. Dairy hoop barns have different designs. One type of hoop barns has a dome-shaped roof. Another type is like a shed, one-sided with a single slope roof. There can be variations to the dairy housing depending on the size of the heifers. More tweaks become necessary as the heifers grow in size. Dairy calves can be housed in hutches. The hutches can be placed outdoors, which is typical. However, adverse weather conditions can make it necessary to place them indoors. The best indoor environment can be barns. From weaning till they are around 6 months old, you can use simple sheds. Just as long as you can provide the pasture they need. Alternatively, you can use hoop sheds. To control and streamline their feeding you can install headlocks. This will ensure they feed orderly without tussling with each other. The dairy farm also requires good fencing, so as to contain the milk cows and manage their grazing. Dairy farm fencing can be by barbed wire, high tensile smooth wire or electric fencing. The dairy milk farm business plan should include the costs of constructing the housing.
Dairy Farm Equipment
There is a wide range of equipment needed in dairy farming business. What you will need depends on your scale or production i.e. number of dairy cows. The other factor is the level of sophistication of your dairy farming operation. At the most basic you need protective clothing such as overalls, boots, gloves, and the like. For day to operations you need equipment such as tractors, trailers, ropes, chains, and loaders. You also need feeders and drinkers – these can be items or in the form of mechanized or digitized systems.
Tags or a tagging system is needed for the dairy cows. Specialized cutters or grinders for hay (or straw) come in handy. You can also have specialized cutters or grinders for green fodder. Ventilation equipment is of importance and so is waste management equipment e.g. manure pits. Milking equipment is obviously required. You will need milk cans or tanks; depends on your capacity. Milking machines, pasteurizers, and homogenizers also come in. The cost of buying the equipment should be included in the dairy cattle farming business plan.
Breeding Stock for Dairy Farming Business
To start a dairy milk production business, you require the dairy breeding stock: bulls (male cattle) and milking cows (female cattle). A dairy farm can also be operated without bulls, by using artificial insemination for breeding the milking cows. The cows should breed every year, as milk production only happens after the cows have given birth to calves. The decision of which dairy breed to use is important, and affects the success of your milk production business.
The breeds you choose will affect the milk production potential of your dairy farming business. Some breeds are better than others at producing good milk quality. The quantity of milk produced also varies depending on the breed of the milk cow. Other characteristics which vary among breeds include breeding age, productive lifespan, adaptation to different environmental conditions & climates, calving ease, feed conversion, diseases resistance, and average birth weight. When choosing breeding stock it is usually wise to look for purebreds. Purebreds normally have detailed information available on their breeding and ancestry history. Some of the most common breeds used in the dairy farming business are Holstein, Red and White, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Ayrshire, Milking Shorthorn. Other noteworthy breeds are Kerry, Dutch Belted, Dexter, and Milking Devon. The dairy farm business plan should include the costs of acquiring the dairy cattle breeding stock.
Feed And Nutrition
Feeds for dairy cattle come in two broad forms namely concentrates and forages. There are also dairy supplementary feeding options that can be considered. Concentrates (usually grain-based) are important because of their high energy and protein content. Forages are essential for the dairy cows as they are good sources of fiber and are typically legume or grass-based. Supplementary feeding of dairy cattle fills gaps that can be there nutrition-wise. For example, molasses is calcium-rich, amongst other essential nutrients. There are 3 common feeding approaches that are used. These are feeding using total mixed ratios, component feeding, and using pastures. Total mixed ratios entail proportionately mixed all-in-one meals. Component feeding as the name suggests involves feeding component by component e.g. forages, concentrates, and so on. Using pastures is by the commonly known paddocking system.
The success of your dairy milk production business is affected by the feeding system that you use. The feeding program of the dairy farming business should ensure that adequate nutrition is provided to both the cows and calves at all growth stages and during all seasons. This should be done while keeping an eye on the feed costs, as they greatly affect profitability of the dairy milk farming business. Dairy cattle need a daily supply of all nutrients required for maintenance and production: milk, meat, growth and pregnancy. Failure to provide adequate feeding for the milk cows and calves results in low milk production, poor reproductive performance, poor growth of the calves and poor disease resistance. These factors all lead to reduced revenues for the dairy milk production business, thus lower profits. The common feeding programs of dairy farming business are usually based on pasture grazing, in combination with supplementary feed. The supplementary feed for dairy cows include concentrates, hay, corn, fodder, salts & minerals, silage, commercial dairy cow feeds and grains. The feed costs should be included in the dairy farming business plan.
Capital for Dairy Farming Business
The amount of capital required for the milk dairy farming business depends on the size of the project. When starting a dairy milk production business, most of the capital goes to acquiring the land, building infrastructure, and buying the dairy cows & bulls. You can get a loan from the bank, or funding from investors, to use as capital to start your dairy farming business. If you plan to raise capital from investors and a loan from the bank, you need a good dairy farming business plan. If you don’t have access to investors and bank loan, you can use your personal savings and start small, and grow your dairy farming business overtime. Dairy cattle farming is very profitable, so if you reinvest the profits you get, you can grow over time. Even if you are not planning to get a loan, you should still get a dairy farming project plan to guide you in starting and operating the business. It is essential for you to have a dairy farming business plan before you venture into the dairy milk production business, so that you know all the costs involved and you make an informed decision.
Market for Dairy Milk
Milk is often regarded as being nature’s most complete food because it provides many of the nutrients which are essential for the growth of the human body. Being an excellent source of protein and having an abundance of vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium, milk can make a positive contribution to the health of a nation.
The market for milk is very huge and is ever increasing, annual milk global demand exceeds 800 million tonnes. Your dairy farming business can sell raw or processed milk. The market for dairy milk includes supplying to milk processors, grocery stores, schools, companies, individual households, organisations etc. It’s important for the dairy farming business plan to include a proper marketing plan to use in your milk dairy farming business.
Pre-Written Dairy Farming Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel): Comprehensive Version, Short Funding/Bank Loan Version and Automated Financial Statements
For an in-depth analysis of the dairy farming business, we encourage you to purchase our well-researched and comprehensive dairy farming business plan. We introduced the business plans after discovering that many were venturing into the dairy cattle production business without enough knowledge and understanding of how to run the dairy milk production business, how to keep the dairy cows, lack of understanding of the financial side of the business, lack of understanding of : the industry, the risks involved , costs and profitability of the business; which often leads to disastrous losses.
The StartupBiz Global dairy business plan will make it easier for you to launch and run your dairy cattle farming business successfully, fully knowing what you are going into, and what’s needed to succeed in the business. It will be easier to plan and budget as you will be aware of all the costs involved in setting up and running the milk cows farming business.
Uses of the Dairy Farming Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)
The milk cows farm business plan can be used for many purposes including:
- Raising capital from investors/friends/relatives
- Applying for a bank loan
- Start-up guide to launch your milk cows farming business
- As a dairy farming business proposal
- Assessing profitability of the dairy milk production business
- Finding a business partner
- Assessing the initial start-up costs so that you know how much to save
- Manual for current business owners to help in business and strategy formulation
Contents of the Dairy Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)
The dairy farming business plan include, but not limited to:
- Marketing Strategy
- Financial Statements (monthly cash flow projections, income statements, cash flow statements, balance sheets, break even analysis, payback period analysis, start-up costs, financial graphs, revenue and expenses, Bank Loan Amortization)
- Risk Analysis
- Industry Analysis
- Market Analysis
- SWOT & PEST Analysis
- Operational Requirements (Including technical aspects of how to keep the dairy cattle, feed requirements etc)
- Operational Strategy
- Why some people in dairy farming business fail, so that you can avoid their mistakes
- Ways to raise capital to start your dairy milk farm business
The Pre-written dairy farm business plan package consists of 4 files
- Dairy Farming Business Plan – PDF file (Comprehensive Version – 124 Pages)
- Dairy Cows Farm Business Plan – Editable Word File (Comprehensive Version – 124 Pages)
- Dairy Cattle Farming Business Plan Funding/Bank Loan Version- Editable Word File (Short version for applying for a loan/funding – 52 pages)
- Dairy Farming Business Plan Automated Financial Statements – (Editable Excel File)
The business plan can be used in any country and can be easily edited. The financial statements are automated. This implies that you can change eg the number of dairy cattle, selling price of the milk etc, and all the other financial statements will automatically adjust to reflect the change.
Click below to download the Contents Page of the Dairy Farming Business Plan (PDF)
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